Found 1 items, similar to HCl.
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, a. [Hydro-, 2 + chloric: cf. F.
Pertaining to, or compounded of, chlorine and hydrogen gas;
as, hydrochloric acid; chlorhydric.
(Chem.), hydrogen chloride; a colorless,
corrosive gas, HCl
, of pungent, suffocating odor. It is
made in great quantities in the soda process, by the
action of sulphuric acid on common salt. It has a great
affinity for water, and the commercial article is a strong
solution of the gas in water. It is a typical acid, and is
an indispensable agent in commercial and general chemical
work. Called also muriatic acid
and chlorhydric acid
([imac]"[o^]n), n. [Gr. 'io`n, neut, of 'iw`n, p. pr.
of 'ie`nai to go.]
1. (Elec. Chem.) an atom or goup of atoms (radical) carrying
an electrical charge. It is contrasted with neutral atoms
or molecules, and free radicals. Certain compounds, such
as sodium chloride, are composed of complementary ions in
the solid (crystalline) as well as in solution. Others,
notably acids such as hydrogen chloride, may occur as
neutral molecules in the pure liquid or gas forms, and
ionize almost completely in dilute aqueous solutions. In
solutions (as in water) ions are frequently bound
non-covalently with the molecules of solvent, and in that
case are said to be solvated. According to the
electrolytic dissociation theory, the molecules of
electrolytes are divided into ions by water and other
solvents. An ion consists of one or more atoms and carries
one unit charges of electricity, 3.4 x 10^-10
electrostatic units, or a multiple of this. Those which
are positively electrified (hydrogen and the metals) are
; negative ions (hydroxyl and acidic atoms
or groups) are called anions
Note: Thus, hydrochloric acid (HCl
) dissociates, in aqueous
solution, into the hydrogen ion, H+
, and the chlorine
; ferric nitrate, Fe(NO3)3
, yields the
ferric ion, Fe+++
, and nitrate ions, NO3-
. When a solution containing ions is made part of
an electric circuit, the cations move toward the
cathode, the anions toward the anode. This movement is
called migration, and the velocity of it differs for
different kinds of ions. If the electromotive force is
sufficient, electrolysis ensues: cations give up their
charge at the cathode and separate in metallic form or
decompose water, forming hydrogen and alkali;
similarly, at the anode the element of the anion
separates, or the metal of the anode is dissolved, or
decomposition occurs. Aluminum and chlorine are
elements prepared predominantly by such electrolysis,
and depends on dissolving compounds in a solvent where
the element forms ions. Electrolysis is also used in
refining other metals, such as copper and silver. Cf.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]
2. One of the small electrified particles into which the
molecules of a gas are broken up under the action of the
electric current, of ultraviolet and certain other rays,
and of high temperatures. To the properties and behavior
of ions the phenomena of the electric discharge through
rarefied gases and many other important effects are
ascribed. At low pressures the negative ions appear to be
electrons; the positive ions, atoms minus an electron. At
ordinary pressures each ion seems to include also a number
of attached molecules. Ions may be formed in a gas in
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]
, a. [L. muriaticus pickled, from muria
brine: cf. F. muriatique.] (Chem.)
Of, pertaining to, or obtained from, sea salt, or from
chlorine, one of the constituents of sea salt; hydrochloric.
, hydrochloric acid, HCl
; -- formerly called
also marine acid
, and spirit of salt
, and the Note under Muriate
, n. [F. type; cf. It. tipo, from L. typus a figure,
image, a form, type, character, Gr. ? the mark of a blow,
impression, form of character, model, from the root of ? to
beat, strike; cf. Skr. tup to hurt.]
1. The mark or impression of something; stamp; impressed
The faith they have in tennis, and tall stockings,
Short blistered breeches, and those types of travel.
2. Form or character impressed; style; semblance.
Thy father bears the type of king of Naples. --Shak.
3. A figure or representation of something to come; a token;
a sign; a symbol; -- correlative to antitype.
A type is no longer a type when the thing typified
comes to be actually exhibited. --South.
4. That which possesses or exemplifies characteristic
qualities; the representative. Specifically:
(a) (Biol.) A general form or structure common to a number
of individuals; hence, the ideal representation of a
species, genus, or other group, combining the
essential characteristics; an animal or plant
possessing or exemplifying the essential
characteristics of a species, genus, or other group.
Also, a group or division of animals having a certain
typical or characteristic structure of body maintained
within the group.
Since the time of Cuvier and Baer . . . the
whole animal kingdom has been universally held
to be divisible into a small number of main
divisions or types. --Haeckel.
(b) (Fine Arts) The original object, or class of objects,
scene, face, or conception, which becomes the subject
of a copy; esp., the design on the face of a medal or
(c) (Chem.) A simple compound, used as a mode or pattern
to which other compounds are conveniently regarded as
being related, and from which they may be actually or
Note: The fundamental types used to express the simplest and
most essential chemical relations are hydrochloric
; water, H2O
; ammonia, NH3
; and methane,
(a) A raised letter, figure, accent, or other character,
cast in metal or cut in wood, used in printing.
(b) Such letters or characters, in general, or the whole
quantity of them used in printing, spoken of
collectively; any number or mass of such letters or
characters, however disposed.
Note: Type are mostly made by casting type metal in a mold,
though some of the larger sizes are made from maple,
mahogany, or boxwood. In the cut, a is the body; b, the
face, or part from which the impression is taken; c,
the shoulder, or top of the body; d, the nick
(sometimes two or more are made), designed to assist
the compositor in distinguishing the bottom of the face
from t`e top; e, the groove made in the process of
finishing, -- each type as cast having attached to the
bottom of the body a jet, or small piece of metal
(formed by the surplus metal poured into the mold),
which, when broken off, leaves a roughness that
requires to be removed. The fine lines at the top and
bottom of a letter are technically called ceriphs, and
when part of the face projects over the body, as in the
letter f, the projection is called a kern.
[1913 Webster] The type which compose an ordinary book
font consist of Roman CAPITALS, small capitals, and
lower-case letters, and Italic CAPITALS and lower-case
letters, with accompanying figures, points, and
reference marks, -- in all about two hundred
characters. Including the various modern styles of
fancy type, some three or four hundred varieties of
face are made. Besides the ordinary Roman and Italic,
some of the most important of the varieties are
[1913 Webster] Old English. Black Letter. Old Style.
French Elzevir. Boldface. Antique. Clarendon. Gothic.
[1913 Webster] The smallest body in common use is
diamond; then follow in order of size, pearl, agate,
nonpareil, minion, brevier, bourgeois (or two-line
diamond), long primer (or two-line pearl), small pica
(or two-line agate), pica (or two-line nonpareil),
English (or two-line minion), Columbian (or two-line
brevier), great primer (two-line bourgeois), paragon
(or two-line long primer), double small pica (or
two-line small pica), double pica (or two-line pica),
double English (or two-line English), double great
primer (or two-line great primer), double paragon (or
two-line paragon), canon (or two-line double pica).
Above this, the sizes are called five-line pica,
six-line pica, seven-line pica, and so on, being made
mostly of wood. The following alphabets show the
different sizes up to great primer.
[1913 Webster] Brilliant . . abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
Diamond . . abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Pearl . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Agate . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Nonpareil . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Minion . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Brevier . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Bourgeois . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Long primer . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Small pica . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Pica . . . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz English . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Columbian . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Great primer . . .
[1913 Webster] The foregoing account is conformed to
the designations made use of by American type founders,
but is substantially correct for England. Agate,
however, is called ruby, in England, where, also, a
size intermediate between nonpareil and minion is
employed, called emerald.
Point system of type bodies
(Type Founding), a system
adopted by the type founders of the United States by which
the various sizes of type have been so modified and
changed that each size bears an exact proportional
relation to every other size. The system is a modification
of a French system, and is based on the pica body. This
pica body is divided into twelfths, which are termed
and every type body consist of a given number
of these points. Many of the type founders indicate the
new sizes of type by the number of points, and the old
names are gradually being done away with. By the point
system type founders cast type of a uniform size and
height, whereas formerly fonts of pica or other type made
by different founders would often vary slightly so that
they could not be used together. There are no type in
actual use corresponding to the smaller theoretical sizes
of the point system. In some cases, as in that of ruby,
the term used designates a different size from that
heretofore so called.
[1913 Webster] 1 American 9 Bourgeois [bar] [bar] 11/2
German [bar] 2 Saxon 10 Long Primer [bar] [bar] 21/2 Norse
[bar] 3 Brilliant 11 Small Pica [bar] [bar] 31/2 Ruby 12
Pica [bar] [bar] 4 Excelsior [bar] 41/2 Diamond 14 English
[bar] [bar] 5 Pearl 16 Columbian [bar] [bar] 51/2 Agate
[bar] 6 Nonpareil 18 Great Primer [bar] [bar] 7 Minion
[bar] 8 Brevier 20 Paragon [bar] [bar] Diagram of the
by which sizes of Type are graduated in the
, one who casts or manufacture type.
, Type foundery
, a place for the manufacture
, an alloy used in making type, stereotype
plates, etc., and in backing up electrotype plates. It
consists essentially of lead and antimony, often with a
little tin, nickel, or copper.
, a wheel having raised letters or characters on
its periphery, and used in typewriters, printing
Unity of type
(Biol.), that fundamental agreement in
structure which is seen in organic beings of the same
class, and is quite independent of their habits of life.