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Definition: Logical induction
, n. [L. inductio: cf. F. induction. See
1. The act or process of inducting or bringing in;
introduction; entrance; beginning; commencement.
I know not you; nor am I well pleased to make this
time, as the affair now stands, the induction of
your acquaintance. --Beau. & Fl.
These promises are fair, the parties sure,
And our induction dull of prosperous hope. --Shak.
2. An introduction or introductory scene, as to a play; a
preface; a prologue. [Obs.]
This is but an induction: I will draw
The curtains of the tragedy hereafter. --Massinger.
3. (Philos.) The act or process of reasoning from a part to a
whole, from particulars to generals, or from the
individual to the universal; also, the result or inference
Induction is an inference drawn from all the
particulars. --Sir W.
Induction is the process by which we conclude that
what is true of certain individuals of a class, is
true of the whole class, or that what is true at
certain times will be true in similar circumstances
at all times. --J. S. Mill.
4. The introduction of a clergyman into a benefice, or of an
official into a office, with appropriate acts or
ceremonies; the giving actual possession of an
ecclesiastical living or its temporalities.
5. (Math.) A process of demonstration in which a general
truth is gathered from an examination of particular cases,
one of which is known to be true, the examination being so
conducted that each case is made to depend on the
preceding one; -- called also successive induction
6. (Physics) The property by which one body, having
electrical or magnetic polarity, causes or induces it in
another body without direct contact; an impress of
electrical or magnetic force or condition from one body on
another without actual contact.
, the action by which a variable
or interrupted current of electricity excites another
current in a neighboring conductor forming a closed
, the influence by which an
electric current produces magnetic polarity in certain
bodies near or around which it passes.
, the action by which a body
possessing a charge of statical electricity develops a
charge of statical electricity of the opposite character
in a neighboring body.
, an apparatus producing induced currents of
great intensity. It consists of a coil or helix of stout
insulated copper wire, surrounded by another coil of very
fine insulated wire, in which a momentary current is
induced, when a current (as from a voltaic battery),
passing through the inner coil, is made, broken, or
varied. The inner coil has within it a core of soft iron,
and is connected at its terminals with a condenser; --
called also inductorium
, and Ruhmkorff's coil
, Induction port
, or Induction valve
pipe, passageway, or valve, for leading or admitting a
fluid to a receiver, as steam to an engine cylinder, or
water to a pump.
, the action by which magnetic polarity
is developed in a body susceptible to magnetic effects
when brought under the influence of a magnet.
, the influence by which a magnet
excites electric currents in closed circuits.
, (Philos.), an act or method of reasoning
from all the parts separately to the whole which they
constitute, or into which they may be united collectively;
the operation of discovering and proving general
propositions; the scientific method.
, the inference, or the act of
inferring, that what has been observed or established in
respect to a part, individual, or species, may, on the
ground of analogy, be affirmed or received of the whole to
which it belongs. This last is the inductive method of
Bacon. It ascends from the parts to the whole, and forms,
from the general analogy of nature, or special
presumptions in the case, conclusions which have greater
or less degrees of force, and which may be strengthened or
weakened by subsequent experience and experiment. It
relates to actual existences, as in physical science or
the concerns of life. Logical induction is founded on the
necessary laws of thought; philosophical induction, on the
interpretation of the indications or analogy of nature.
. In induction we observe a
sufficient number of individual facts, and, on the
ground of analogy, extend what is true of them to
others of the same class, thus arriving at general
principles or laws. This is the kind of reasoning in
physical science. In deduction we begin with a general
truth, which is already proven or provisionally
assumed, and seek to connect it with some particular
case by means of a middle term, or class of objects,
known to be equally connected with both. Thus, we
bring down the general into the particular, affirming
of the latter the distinctive qualities of the former.
This is the syllogistic method. By induction Franklin
established the identity of lightning and electricity;
by deduction he inferred that dwellings might be
protected by lightning rods.